February 8, 2018
Over the past 15 years, most of the Supreme Court of Canada’s decisions respecting Indigenous Peoples in Canada have revolved around the Crown’s duty of consultation. The Crown, however, also owes Indigenous peoples another duty: a fiduciary duty. On February 2, 2018 the Supreme Court of Canada reviewed the elements of the Crown’s fiduciary duty to Indigenous Peoples in the context of a claim based on Crown conduct that occurred in the middle of the 19th century. In Williams Lake Indian Band v. Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada confirmed that in 1858, the Crown owed a fiduciary obligation to the Williams Lake Indian Band and breached that duty. The decision is a salutary reminder that governments cannot restrict their diligence to the existence of Aboriginal title or rights and the duty of consultation. They must also consider whether, in exercising discretionary powers under the law, they have fiduciary obligations to Indigenous peoples and if so, they are fulfilling that duty.
The Current Relevance
The Crown’s duty of consultation and its fiduciary duty to Indigenous peoples are two separate legal obligations. The fiduciary duty has some characteristics, such as good faith and full disclosure, that are also aspects of the duty of consultation. The two duties may even overlap. But they are not the same. There are three principal differences. First, the duty of consultation focuses primarily on process issues; the fiduciary duty is a more direct duty requiring the Crown to exercise its discretionary power to a legally prescribed standard of conduct. Second, there is also a specific beneficiary of the fiduciary duty, namely an Indigenous community with a specific or cognizable interest. Third, the consequences of breach are different. If the Crown fails to meet the fiduciary standard of conduct, a tribunal or court may set its decision aside, and the Crown may be obliged to pay compensation for its breach of the fiduciary duty. In contrast, if the Crown breaches the duty of consultation, the remedy is usually an order quashing an approval or permit.
Of what relevance today is a case on the Crown’s failure to discharge its fiduciary duty in the 19th century? A great deal: the existence and fulfilment of a fiduciary duty might affect how governments deal with project assessments and approvals:
One recent example of the impact of the Crown’s breach of fiduciary duty is the 2017 decision of the Federal Court of Appeal in Coldwater Indian Band v. Canada (Indian and Northern Affairs) in which the Court set aside a decision of the Minister approving a transfer of an easement from one corporate subsidiary to another because the Crown breached its fiduciary obligation to the Coldwater Band. The Supreme Court of Canada’s February 2, 2018 decision in Williams Lake Indian Band v. Canada is another reminder of the continuing relevance of the Crown’s fiduciary duty.
In 1858 when the colony of British Columbia was established, the Williams Lake Indian Band occupied Village Lands at the foot of Williams Lake. Governor Douglas provided assurances to the Band and others in the area that the Imperial Crown would survey their occupied village sites and reserve them for their benefit. Later the Crown issued a proclamation that permitted settlers to acquire “unoccupied and unreserved and un-surveyed Crown land” with certain exceptions, including “an Indian Reserve or settlement.” The settlers acquired lands by recording pre-emptions (a process that gave settlers the right to purchase public land). Notwithstanding the assurances given to the Band, the Village Lands were pre-empted, and government officials took no steps to call into question the pre-emptions recorded contrary to the proclamation and the legislation that subsequently effected it. The Band was therefore dispossessed from the Village Lands. The Band was later provided with a reserve on the other side of the Lake.
Post 2008, the Band made a claim under the provisions of the Specific Claims Tribunal Act alleging the Crown breached its legal obligation to protect the Band from being dispossessed of the Village Lands. The Specific Claims Tribunal decided the Band’s claim was well-founded: the Crown had breached its obligation to the Band by failing to prevent the Village Lands from being pre-empted and failing to challenge the pre-emptions that were unlawfully recorded. The Federal Court of Appeal overturned the Tribunal’s decision. The Tribunal appealed that decision to the Supreme Court of Canada.
The Supreme Court of Canada’s Decision
The actual issue in the Supreme Court was whether the courts should review the Tribunal’s decision on the standard of correctness or of reasonableness. The Supreme Court decided the applicable standard was reasonableness. That would normally mean the Supreme Court accepted that the Tribunal’s decision fell within a range of reasonable conclusions. However, the way in which the Supreme Court analyzed the Tribunal’s reasoning makes it clear that the Court considered the Tribunal’s statement of the legal principles and its application of those principles to the facts were fundamentally correct. The Supreme Court addressed many issues in this case. Of particular interest, however, to project proponents in Canada is the Supreme Court’s treatment of the Crown’s fiduciary obligations to Indigenous peoples.
The Fiduciary Obligation. There are two ways in which a fiduciary obligation may arise between the Crown and Indigenous peoples:
Sui Generis Fiduciary Obligation. The majority of the Supreme Court confined its consideration to the sui generis fiduciary obligation, and did not address the question of the Crown’s ad hoc fiduciary obligation. The Crown, as a fiduciary, must exercise its discretionary control in accordance with the equitable standards that require loyalty, good faith and full disclosure. In its pursuit of the beneficiary’s interests, the fiduciary must exercise the care of a person of ordinary prudence in managing his or her own affairs. The sui generis fiduciary obligation in the Aboriginal law context exists in relation to a specific or cognizable Aboriginal interest. It was the identification of such interest that was a crucial issue in the Supreme Court. There was no dispute that if the fiduciary obligation existed, the Crown was in breach of that obligation. The federal Crown argued that, prior to British Columbia’s entry into Confederation, the sui generis obligation had not existed.
Discretionary Power. The second element of the test for the existence of a fiduciary duty was the existence of discretionary power on the part of the Village Lands. Crown officials’ knowledge of the Band’s interest in the Village Lands, coupled with the requirements of colonial law and policy to take steps to protect that interest, gave rise to a discretionary power on the part of the Crown officials in carrying out their functions in accordance with that law and policy.
Breach of the Fiduciary Duty. The Crown failed to meet its fiduciary obligation because the officials charged with protecting the Band’s interests failed to secure the interests of the Band in the Village Lands and improperly gave priority to the unlawful pre-emptions that led to the Band’s dispossession.
Please contact your McInnes Cooper lawyer or any member of the Aboriginal Law Team @ McInnes Cooper to discuss this topic or any other legal issue.
McInnes Cooper has prepared this document for information only; it is not intended to be legal advice. You should consult McInnes Cooper about your unique circumstances before acting on this information. McInnes Cooper excludes all liability for anything contained in this document and any use you make of it.
© McInnes Cooper, 2018. All rights reserved. McInnes Cooper owns the copyright in this document. You may reproduce and distribute this document in its entirety as long as you do not alter the form or the content and you give McInnes Cooper credit for it. You must obtain McInnes Cooper’s consent for any other form of reproduction or distribution. Email us at [email protected] to request our consent.
May 10, 2021
The Supreme Court of Canada continues to expand the scope of Aboriginal rights. On April 23, 2021, in R. v. Desautel, for the first time the…
Apr 13, 2021
On April 7, 2021, the Nova Scotia government introduced Bill 97, amendments to the N.S. Electricity Act aimed at growing the solar industry in…
Mar 31, 2021
Close to five million Canadians who didn’t usually work from home, did so in 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Even as public health…
Mar 26, 2021
Merger and acquisition deals are still happening across all sectors, perhaps at an even higher rate than pre-COVID-19 pandemic, even if the…
Mar 19, 2021
Recently, New Brunswick temporarily broadened the eligibility for its Skilled Worker Stream through its Provincial Nominee Program (PNP),…
Subscribe to McInnes Cooper to stay current with our leading insights on legal updates, trends, news, events, and services.